PTE写作考试必备语法:定语从句

2017-07-07 14:58 作者:admin
摘要:PTE的写作最大的特点就是考察学生的词汇量和写长难句的能力。定语从句作为比较容易掌握的一个从句,很过考生虽然知道怎么写,但是理解的不够深刻。

  很多考生说PTE写作比雅思容易,容易拿到65+。雅思写作要求句子简练,逻辑清晰。PTE的写作最大的特点就是考察学生的词汇量和写长难句的能力。定语从句作为比较容易掌握的一个从句,很过考生虽然知道怎么写,但是理解的不够深刻。今天给大家详细讲解定语从句。

  在复合句中 , 修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句 , 被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词 , 引导定语从句的有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that等和关系副词where, when, why等 , 关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份。

 1.由who引导的定语从句中 , who用作主语 , 如 : This is the boy who often helps me.

2.由whom引导的定语从句中,whom用作宾语,如:The man whom you are waiting for has gone home.

3.由whose引导的定语从句中 , whose用作定语 , 如 : Do you know the girl whose skirt is white?

 4.由which引导的定语从句中,which用作主语或谓语动词的宾语或介词的宾语,如:

  The room in which there is a machine is a work shop.

  The river which is in front of my house is very clean.

  This is the pen which you want.

  注意 :

  (1)whom, which用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放在 whom、which之前 , 也可放在从句原来的位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上。如: He is the very person whom we must take good care of.

  (2)引导非限制性定语从句时,必须用关系代词which,不用that,如:I have lost

  my bag, which I like very much.

  (3)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致。

 5.由that引导的定语从句中,that可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语,如:

  The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun.

  注意在下面几种情况下必须用 that引导定语从句。

  (1)先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything等 , 如 :

  All that we have to do is to practise English.

  (2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,如

  The first letter that I got from him will be kept.

  (3)先行词被all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some等修饰 , 如

  I've eaten up all the food that you gave me.

  (4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时如

  He is the only person that I want to talk with.

  (5)先行词既有人又有物时,如:

  They talked about persons and things that they met.

  (6)当句中已有who时 , 为避免重复 , 如 : Who is the man that is giving us the

  class?

6.由when, where, why引导的定语从句,如:

  I don't know the reason why he was late.

  This is the place where we have lived for 5 years.

  I'll never forget the day when I met Mr Li for the first time.

  注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用 that(which),如果从句的谓语动词是不及物的,就用where引导。This is the house Which /that he has lived in for 15 years.(Where he has lived for 15 year.)

 7. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

  (1)限制性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, of which等,这些关系代词都不能省略。

  (2)非限制性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明 , 没有这种从句 , 不影响主句意思的完整 , 一般用逗号把主句和从句分开 , 关系代词用 which,不用that;指人时可用who,如 : I have two brothers, who are both students.

8.如何简化定语从句

  (1).定语从句简化为形容词或形容词短语作后置定语。如:

  My grandfather lives in a village that is far away from here.

  →My grandfather lives in a village far away from here.我祖父住在离这儿很远的一个村子。

  This is a book that is worth reading.

  →This is a book worth reading. 这是一本值得看的书。

  (2) 定语从句简化为现在分词或现在分词短语作前置或后置定语。

  The man who is standing under the tree is our English teacher.

  →The man standing under the tree is our English teacher.

  站在树下面的那个人是我们的英语老师。

  I saw the house that was burning at that time.→I saw the burning house at that time.

  当时我看到那房子在燃烧。

  (3)定语从句简化为过去分词短语作后置定语。

  I like to see the films which are directed by Zhang Yimou.→I like to see the films directed by Zhang Yimou. 我喜欢看张艺谋导演的电影。

  She is the girl who was praised at the school meeting.→She is the girl praised at the school meeting. 她就是在校会上受表彰的那个女孩。

  (4)定语从句简化为不定式作后置定语。

  He is always the first person that comes to school.→He is always the first person to come to school.他总是第一个到校。

  The report which will be given tomorrow is important to us.→The report to be given tomorrow is important to us. 明天要作的报告对我们很重要。

  (5)定语从句简化为what 从句。

  I couldn't remember the words that he said.→I couldn't remember what he said.

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