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托福TPO32lecture1名师解析

2016-12-01 16:41
摘要:对于一个跟着的中学教育、大学教育,然后考过四六级的人来说,是远远达不到这种境界的。所以,在准备托福听力的时候,我们首先要做的功课,就是解决对英语的辨音能力。

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  以下就是100留学为大家整理的托福TPO32lecture1名师解析。希望对各位考生的备考有所帮助:

  Lecture1-Archaeology (Bananas & African History)

  Listen to part of a lecture in an archaeology class.

  Professor

  One of the important aspects of the field of archaeology…one of the things that excites me about the field…is that seemingly insignificant things can suddenly change the way we think about a culture. We are always making new discoveries that have the potential to challenge widely held beliefs.

  Take something like the banana, for example. It turns out that this ordinary fruit may be forcing scientists to rewrite major parts of African history! We know the bananas were introduced to Africa via Southeast Asia. And until recently, we thought we knew when they were introduced—about 2,000 years ago. But discoveries in Uganda, that’s in Eastern Africa, are throwing that into question. Scientists studying soil samples there discovered evidence of bananas in sediment that was 5,000 years old!

  Now, let me explain that it’s not easy to find traces of ancient bananas. The fruit is soft and doesn’t have any hard seeds that might survive over the ages. So after 5,000 years, you might think there would be nothing left to study. Well, fortunately for archaeologists, all plants contain what are called phytoliths in their stems and leaves. Phytoliths are microscopic structures made of silica, and they do not decay. When plants die and rot away, they leave these phytoliths behind. Because different plants produce differently shaped phytoliths, scientists can identify the type of plant from ancient remains.

  So, those scientists in Uganda, dug down to sediments that were 5,000 years old. And what do you think they found? Banana phytoliths! Obviously this meant that we had to rethink our previous notions about when bananas first arrived in Africa. But, well, this discovery had other implications for history.

  As soon as bananas appear in the archaeological record, we know we have contact between Africa and Southeast Asia. It would appear now that this contact occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  Al…although…now here’s where the uncertainty comes in…we don’t really have any solid evidence of trade between the peoples of these two regions that long ago. Presumably, if people were bringing bananas to Africa, they’d also be bringing other things too: pottery, tools…all sorts of objects made for trade or daily use. But any such evidence is missing from the archaeological record.

  The early appearance of bananas also suggests that agriculture began in this part of Africa earlier than scientists imagined. You see, bananas, at least the edible kind, can’t grow without human intervention. They have to be cultivated. People need to plant them and care for them. So if bananas were present in Uganda 5,000 years ago, we would have to assume…that…that…that someone planted them.

  But, there are questions about this too. We know that bananas can be a staple food that can support large populations, as they did in Uganda in the more recent past. If bananas were grown thousands of years ago, why don’t we see evidence of large populations thriving in the area earlier?

  So, we are left with this mystery. We have what appears to be strong biological evidence that bananas were being cultivated in Uganda as early as 5,000 years ago. But we are missing other kinds of evidence that would conclusively prove that this is so.

  Clearly, more research needs to be done. Perhaps by some new scholars from this university? At least give it some thought.

  译文:

  教授

  考古领域一个重要的方面。。。也是这个领域最让我兴奋的一点,是似乎不怎么重要的事情能够瞬间改变我们思考一个文化的方式。我们总是一直在探究出新发现,而这些新发现可能会挑战大家普遍认为的观点。

  拿香蕉举个例子。结果表明这普通的水果可能逼迫科学家重新书写非洲历史一些重要的部分。

  我们知道香蕉是通过南亚传到非洲的。最近,我们也以为我们知道他们是什么时候被传过去的-大约2000年前。但是在东非的乌干达的一些发现却开始质疑这个时间点。研究那里土壤样品的科学家发现了5000年前的香蕉沉淀物。

  我要解释一下,找到古代香蕉的踪迹不是那么容易。香蕉很软,而且没有硬的种子,不能存活多年。因此,5000年后,你可能会以为没有任何东西可以研究了。但是,对于考古学家来说,很幸运的,所有的植物在他们的茎和叶子都有一种被称为 “phytoliths”的物质。植物岩石由硅土形成的微小的结构,而且他们不腐烂。当植物死掉,或者腐烂的时候,他们会留下植物岩。因为不同种植物会产生形状不同的植物岩,因为科学家可以从植物岩的形状去判断是哪种植物遗留下来的。

  因此,在乌干达的那些科学家,挖到5000年前的沉淀物。你们猜他们发现了什么。香蕉植物岩。很明显,这意味着我们要重新思考香蕉首次引进非洲的时间了。但是,这个发现还有其他的一些跟历史相关的启事。

  从考古记录里我们知道,非洲和南亚有过交流。现在能表明这个交流比我们之前想象要早很多。

  但是,这里有不确定因素了。我们没有真正意义的确凿的证据能够表明这两个地狱的人们那么久远之前有过贸易往来的。很有可能地,如果人们把香蕉带到非洲,他们应该也会带其他的物品,瓷器,工具,各种用做贸易或日常生活的物品。但是考古记录没有这方面的证据。

  香蕉早期的出现也表明农业在非洲这部分开始的时间比科学家们想象得要早。你看,香蕉,至少是可食用的种类,必须要在人的干预下才能生长。他们必须要人类耕种才能生长。人们需要种植他们并养护他们。因此如果香蕉5000年前就出现在乌干达的话,我们应该可以确信是有人类耕种的。

  但是,这个理论也有一些问题。我们知道香蕉可以是一种够养活很多人的主食,就像他们近些年在乌干达那样。如果香蕉几千年前就种植了,那为什么我们没有看到那个地方早些时候有过很多人口呢?

  这是还未被解答的谜团。我们有看似强有力的生物证据表明香蕉早在5000千年前就在乌干达被耕种了。但是我们却缺少其他可以证明这个结论的一些证据。

  很明显,需要做更多的证据。或许这个学校的一些新学者可以做?至少思考思考这个问题。

  6. What is the lecture mainly about?

  A. The history of archaeology in Africa

  B. Traditional methods in archaeological research

  C. Controversial new archaeological findings

  D. The study of archaeology in Southeast Asia

  解析:

  正确答案C

  文中位置:One of the important aspects of the field of archaeology…one of the things that excites me about the field…is that seemingly insignificant things can suddenly change the way we think about a culture. We are always making new discoveries that have the potential to challenge widely held beliefs.

  文章就是说考古发现香蕉传到非洲的时间更早,这个地域早些时间应该有较多人类生活过,但是并没有证据证明,所以是有争议的。

  A选项:文章并不是说非洲考古学的历史或发展史,而是考古的发现。非洲在文章中有出现,只是说到香蕉由亚洲传到非洲。

  B选项:主要并不是说方法,虽然文章有一小部分说到分析phytolith,这也是非常细节的。

  D. 不是说南亚考古的研究,只说香蕉从南亚传过来。

  7. What excites the professor about the field of archaeology?

  A. Established theories can be challenged by new evidence

  B. The technology used in archaeology is always improving

  C. Archaeology deals with basic issues of human societies

  D. Archaeologists often work in interesting parts of the world

  解析:正确答案 A

  文本位置One of the important aspects of the field of archaeology…one of the things that excites me about the field…is that seemingly insignificant things can suddenly change the way we think about a culture.

  B. 文章并未说到考古技术。

  C. 未提及。

  D. 未提及。

  8. According to the professor, what can scientists learn by examining ancient phytoliths?

  A. The nutrients a plant took in

  B. The age of a certain sediment layer

  C. What a plant was used for

  D. What type of plant produced them

  解析:

  正确答案D

  Well, fortunately for archaeologists, all plants contain what are called phytoliths in their stems and leaves. Phytoliths are microscopic structures made of silica, and they do not decay. When plants die and rot away, they leave these phytoliths behind. Because different plants produce differently shaped phytoliths, scientists can identify the type of plant from ancient remains.

  A选项:未提及

  B选项:有提到sediment, 文中说的是在Sediment发现了Phytoliths. 由Phytoliths推出植物种类。并未说道由Phytoliths推出the age of a certain sediment layer

  C选项:未提及

  9. What are the implications of the theory that bananas arrived in Africa 5,000 years ago?

  Select 2 answers

  A. Agriculture developed in Africa earlier than previously assumed

  B. Contact between Africa and Asia occurred earlier than previously assumed

  C. People have inhabited southeast Asia longer than previously assumed

  D. The banana plant is a more ancient plant than was previously assumed

  解析:

  正确答案 A B

  文本位置

  But, well, this discovery had other implications for history.

  As soon as bananas appear in the archaeological record, we know we have contact between Africa and Southeast Asia. It would appear now that this contact occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  The early appearance of bananas also suggests that agriculture began in this part of Africa earlier than scientists imagined.

  C选项:未提及。

  D选项:未提及。注意这里的时间比想象久或早是指香蕉传到非洲的时间,并不是香蕉开始出现的时间。

  10. What does the professor consider a weakness of the study on bananas in Africa?

  A. It did not produce accurate data

  B. Its results are of little importance

  C. Its conclusions are not supported by other studies

  D. It does not make good use of advanced technology

  解析:

  正确选项:C

  文本位置

  If bananas were grown thousands of years ago, why don’t we see evidence of large populations thriving in the area earlier?

  So, we are left with this mystery. We have what appears to be strong biological evidence that bananas were being cultivated in Uganda as early as 5,000 years ago. But we are missing other kinds of evidence that would conclusively prove that this is so.

  A选项:未提及

  B选项:未提及。而且结果应该是重要的

  D选项:未提及

  11. Why does the professor say this:

  A. To announce her intentions to continue the study herself

  B. To encourage her students to do archaeological research

  C. To discredit the recent research on bananas and phytoliths

  D. To highlight the university’s reputation in archaeology

  解析:正确选项 B

  文本位置

  Perhaps by some new scholars from this university? At least give it some thought.

  这道题答案比较简单。就是学生做研究解答这个疑问。

  A. 没说到自己要做。

  B. 未提及

  C. 未提及

  是100留学为大家整理的托福TPO32lecture1名师解析。更多托福备考内容,请继续关注100留学教育。


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