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托福考试TPO31阅读真题Geographically Isolated Populations

2017-10-11 11:59
摘要:在托福备考的过程中,TPO往往是大家常用的材料。那么,下面我们就为大家带来托福考试TPO31阅读真题Geographically Isolated Populations。

  以下就是100留学为大家整理的托福考试TPO31阅读真题Geographically Isolated Populations。希望对各位考生的备考有所帮助:

  Para.1

  Evolutionary biologists believe that speciation, the formation of a new species, often begins when some kind of physical barrier arises and divides a population of a single species into separate subpopulations. Physical separation between subpopulations promotes the formation of new species because once the members of one subpopulation can no longer mate with members of another subpopulation, they cannot exchange variant genes that arise in one of the subpopulations. In the absence of gene flow between the subpopulations, genetic differences between the groups begin to accumulate. Eventually the subpopulations become so genetically distinct that they cannot interbreed even if the physical barriers between them were removed. At this point the subpopulations have evolved into distinct species. This route to speciation is known as allopatry (“allo-” means “different”, and “patria” means “homeland”).

  Para.2

  Allopatric speciation may be the main speciation route. This should not be surprising, since allopatry is pretty common. In general, the subpopulations of most species are separated from each other by some measurable distance. So even under normal situations the gene flow among the subpopulations is more of an intermittent trickle than a steady stream. In addition, barriers can rapidly arise and shut off the trickle. For example, in the 1800s a monstrous earthquake changed the course of the Mississippi River, a large river flowing in the central part of the United States of America. The change separated populations of insects now living along opposite shores, completely cutting off gene flow between them.

  Para.3

  Geographic isolation can also proceed slowly, over great spans of time. We find evidence of such extended events in the fossil record, which affords glimpse into the breakup of formerly continuous environments. For example, during past ice ages, glaciers advanced down through North America and Europe and gradually cut off parts of populations from one another. When the glaciers retreated, the separated populations of plants and animals came into contact again. Some groups that had descended from the same parent population were no longer reproductively compatible – they had evolved into separate species. In other groups, however, genetic divergences had not proceeded so far, and the descendants could still interbreed – for them, reproductive isolation was not completed, and so speciation had not occurred.


  Para.4

  Allopatric speciation can also be brought by the imperceptibly slow but colossal movements of the tectonic plates that make up Earth’s surface. About 5 million years ago such geologic movements created the land bridge between North America and South America that we call the Isthmus of Panama . The formation of the isthmus had important consequences for global patterns of ocean water flow. While previously the gap between the continents had allowed a free flow of water, now the isthmus presented a barrier that divided the Atlantic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean. This division set the stage for allopatric speciation among populations of fishes and other marine species.

  Para.5

  In the 1980s, John Graves studied two populations of closely related fishes, one population from the Atlantic side of isthmus, the other from the Pacific side. He compared four enzymes found in the muscles of each population. Graves found that all four Pacific enzymes function better at lower temperatures than the four Atlantic versions of the same enzymes. This is significant because Pacific seawater if typically 2 to 3 degrees cooler than seawater on the Atlantic side of isthmus. Analysis by gel electrophoresis revealed slight differences in amino acid sequence of the enzymes of two of the four pairs. This is significant because the amino acid sequence of an enzyme is determined by genes.

  Para.6

  Graves drew two conclusions from these observations. First, at least some of the observed differences between the enzymes of the Atlantic and Pacific fish populations were not random but were the result of evolutionary adaptation. Second, it appears that closely related populations of fishes on both sides of the isthmus are starting to genetically diverge from each other. Because Graves’ study of geographically isolated populations of isthmus fishes offers a glimpse of the beginning of a process of gradual accumulation of mutations that are neutral or adaptive, divergences here might be evidence of allopatric speciation in process.


  Para.1

  Evolutionary biologists believe that speciation, the formation of a new species, often begins when some kind of physical barrier arises and divides a population of a single species into separate subpopulations. Physical separation between subpopulations promotes the formation of new species because once the members of one subpopulation can no longer mate with members of another subpopulation, they cannot exchange variant genes that arise in one of the subpopulations. In the absence of gene flow between the subpopulations, genetic differences between the groups begin to accumulate. Eventually the subpopulations become so genetically distinct that they cannot interbreed even if the physical barriers between them were removed. At this point the subpopulations have evolved into distinct species. This route to speciation is known as allopatry (“allo-” means “different”, and “patria” means “homeland”).

  Para.2

  Allopatric speciation may be the main speciation route. This should not be surprising, since allopatry is pretty common. In general, the subpopulations of most species are separated from each other by some measurable distance. So even under normal situations the gene flow among the subpopulations is more of an intermittent trickle than a steady stream. In addition, barriers can rapidly arise and shut off the trickle. For example, in the 1800s a monstrous earthquake changed the course of the Mississippi River, a large river flowing in the central part of the United States of America. The change separated populations of insects now living along opposite shores, completely cutting off gene flow between them.

  Para.3

  Geographic isolation can also proceed slowly, over great spans of time. We find evidence of such extended events in the fossil record, which affords glimpse into the breakup of formerly continuous environments. For example, during past ice ages, glaciers advanced down through North America and Europe and gradually cut off parts of populations from one another. When the glaciers retreated, the separated populations of plants and animals came into contact again. Some groups that had descended from the same parent population were no longer reproductively compatible – they had evolved into separate species. In other groups, however, genetic divergences had not proceeded so far, and the descendants could still interbreed – for them, reproductive isolation was not completed, and so speciation had not occurred.


  Para.4

  Allopatric speciation can also be brought by the imperceptibly slow but colossal movements of the tectonic plates that make up Earth’s surface. About 5 million years ago such geologic movements created the land bridge between North America and South America that we call the Isthmus of Panama . The formation of the isthmus had important consequences for global patterns of ocean water flow. While previously the gap between the continents had allowed a free flow of water, now the isthmus presented a barrier that divided the Atlantic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean. This division set the stage for allopatric speciation among populations of fishes and other marine species.

  Para.5

  In the 1980s, John Graves studied two populations of closely related fishes, one population from the Atlantic side of isthmus, the other from the Pacific side. He compared four enzymes found in the muscles of each population. Graves found that all four Pacific enzymes function better at lower temperatures than the four Atlantic versions of the same enzymes. This is significant because Pacific seawater if typically 2 to 3 degrees cooler than seawater on the Atlantic side of isthmus. Analysis by gel electrophoresis revealed slight differences in amino acid sequence of the enzymes of two of the four pairs. This is significant because the amino acid sequence of an enzyme is determined by genes.

  Para.6

  Graves drew two conclusions from these observations. First, at least some of the observed differences between the enzymes of the Atlantic and Pacific fish populations were not random but were the result of evolutionary adaptation. Second, it appears that closely related populations of fishes on both sides of the isthmus are starting to genetically diverge from each other. Because Graves’ study of geographically isolated populations of isthmus fishes offers a glimpse of the beginning of a process of gradual accumulation of mutations that are neutral or adaptive, divergences here might be evidence of allopatric speciation in process.


  Para.1

  Evolutionary biologists believe that speciation, the formation of a new species, often begins when some kind of physical barrier arises and divides a population of a single species into separate subpopulations. Physical separation between subpopulations promotes the formation of new species because once the members of one subpopulation can no longer mate with members of another subpopulation, they cannot exchange variant genes that arise in one of the subpopulations. In the absence of gene flow between the subpopulations, genetic differences between the groups begin to accumulate. Eventually the subpopulations become so genetically distinct that they cannot interbreed even if the physical barriers between them were removed. At this point the subpopulations have evolved into distinct species. This route to speciation is known as allopatry (“allo-” means “different”, and “patria” means “homeland”).

1. The word “promotes” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  o Describes

  o Encourages

  o Delays

  o Requires


  2. According to paragraph 1, allopatric speciation involves which of the following?

  o The division of a population into subspecies

  o The reuniting of separated populations after they have become distinct species

  o The movement of a population to a new homeland

  o The absence of gene flow between subpopulations

  Para.2

  Allopatric speciation may be the main speciation route. This should not be surprising, since allopatry is pretty common. In general, the subpopulations of most species are separated from each other by some measurable distance. So even under normal situations the gene flow among the subpopulations is more of an intermittent trickle than a steady stream. In addition, barriers can rapidly arise and shut off the trickle. For example, in the 1800s a monstrous earthquake changed the course of the Mississippi River, a large river flowing in the central part of the United States of America. The change separated populations of insects now living along opposite shores, completely cutting off gene flow between them.

  3. Why does the author provide the information that “subpopulations of most species are separated from each other by some measurable distance"?

  o To indicate how scientists are able to determine whether subpopulations of a species are allopatric

  o To define what it means for a group of animals or plants to be a subpopulation

  o To suggest that allopatric speciation is not the only route to speciation

  o To help explain why allopatric speciation is a common way for new species to come about


  4. The word “accumulate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  o Become more significant

  o Occur randomly

  o Gradually increase in number

  o Cause changes

5. In paragraph 2, why does the author mention that some insect populations were separated from each other by a change in the course of Mississippi River caused by an earthquake?

  o To make the point that some kind of physical barrier separates the subpopulations of most species

  o To support the claim that the condition of allopatry can sometimes arise in a short time

  o To provide an example of a situation in which gene flow among the populations a species happens at a slow rate

  o To explain why insect living along opposite shores of the Mississippi River are very different from each other


  Para.3

  Geographic isolation can also proceed slowly, over great spans of time. We find evidence of such extended events in the fossil record, which affords glimpse into the breakup of formerly continuous environments. For example, during past ice ages, glaciers advanced down through North America and Europe and gradually cut off parts of populations from one another. When the glaciers retreated, the separated populations of plants and animals came into contact again. Some groups that had descended from the same parent population were no longer reproductively compatible – they had evolved into separate species. In other groups, however, genetic divergences had not proceeded so far, and the descendants could still interbreed – for them, reproductive isolation was not completed, and so speciation had not occurred.

  6. According to paragraph 3, separation of subpopulations by glaciers resulted in speciation in those groups of plants and animals that

  o Were reproductively isolated even after the glaciers disappeared

  o Had adjusted to the old conditions caused by the glaciers

  o Were able to survive being separated from their parent population

  o Had experienced some genetic divergences from their parent population


  Para.4

  Allopatric speciation can also be brought by the imperceptibly slow but colossal movements of the tectonic plates that make up Earth’s surface. About 5 million years ago such geologic movements created the land bridge between North America and South America that we call the Isthmus of Panama . The formation of the isthmus had important consequences for global patterns of ocean water flow. While previously the gap between the continents had allowed a free flow of water, now the isthmus presented a barrier that divided the Atlantic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean. This division set the stage for allopatric speciation among populations of fishes and other marine species.

  7. The word “colossal” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  o Consistent

  o Gradual

  o Enormous

  o Effective

  8. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true of the geologic movements that brought about the Isthmus of Panama?

  o The movements brought populations of certain fishes and marine organisms into contact with one another for the first time.

  o The movements transferred populations of fishes and other marine animals between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

  o The movement created conditions that allowed water to flow more freely between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

  o The movement created conditions for the formation of new species of fishes and other marine animals.


  Para.5

  In the 1980s, John Graves studied two populations of closely related fishes, one population from the Atlantic side of isthmus, the other from the Pacific side. He compared four enzymes found in the muscles of each population. Graves found that all four Pacific enzymes function better at lower temperatures than the four Atlantic versions of the same enzymes. This is significant because Pacific seawater if typically 2 to 3 degrees cooler than seawater on the Atlantic side of isthmus. Analysis by gel electrophoresis revealed slight differences in amino acid sequence of the enzymes of two of the four pairs. This is significant because the amino acid sequence of an enzyme is determined by genes.

  9. The word “sequence” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  o Quality

  o Order

  o Function

  o Number


  10. According to paragraph 5, by comparing the enzymes from two related groups of fishes on opposite sides of the isthmus, Graves found evidence that

  o There were slight genetic divergences between the two groups

  o The Atlantic group of fishes were descended from the Pacific group of fishes

  o The temperature of water on either side of the isthmus had changed

  o Genetic changes in the Atlantic group of fishes were more rapid an frequent than in the Pacific group of fishes


Para.6

  Graves drew two conclusions from these observations. First, at least some of the observed differences between the enzymes of the Atlantic and Pacific fish populations were not random but were the result of evolutionary adaptation. Second, it appears that closely related populations of fishes on both sides of the isthmus are starting to genetically diverge from each other. Because Graves’ study of geographically isolated populations of isthmus fishes offers a glimpse of the beginning of a process of gradual accumulation of mutations that are neutral or adaptive, divergences here might be evidence of allopatric speciation in process.

  11. It can be inferred from paragraph 5 and 6 that the reason Graved concluded that some of the differences between the Pacific and Atlantic enzymes were not random was that

  o Each of the Pacific enzymes works better in cooler waters

  o The enzymes of the Atlantic fish populations had not changed since the formation of the Isthmus of Panama

  o Gel electrophoresis showed that the changes benefited both the Atlantic and the Pacific fish populations

  o The differences between the enzymes disappeared when the two fish populations were experimentally switched to other side of the isthmus

12. Which of the sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  o Graves’s study provides evidence that isthmus fishes are in the process of becoming geographically isolated.

  o Graves’s study of mutating isthmus fishes yields results that differ from results of other studies involving allopatric speciation.

  o Graves’s study of isolated populations of isthmus fishes provides some evidence that allopatric speciation might be beginning.

  o Graves’s study indicates that when isolated, populations of isthmus fishes register neutral or adaptive mutations.


  13. Look at the four squares 【】 that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

  The formation of the isthmus had important consequences for global patterns of ocean water flow.

  Where would the sentence best fit?

  Allopatric speciation can also be brought by the imperceptibly slow but colossal movements of the tectonic plates that make up Earth’s surface. 【】About 5 million years ago such geologic movements created the land bridge between North America and South America that we call the Isthmus of Panama . 【】While previously the gap between the continents had allowed a free flow of water, now the isthmus presented a barrier that divided the Atlantic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean. 【】This division set the stage for allopatric speciation among populations of fishes and other marine species.【】


  14. Prose Summary

  Allopatric speciation takes place when physically separated populations of a single species gradually diverge genetically to the point of becoming unable to interbreed.

  Answer Choices

  A. Allopatric speciation is common because the gene flow between subpopulations is generally limited and the barriers that completely separate subpopulations can arise in a variety of ways.

  D. Physical barriers from glaciers and the movement of tectonic plates form so slowly that the subpopulations on either side of the barriers usually do not form distinct species.

  B. During past ice ages, some, but not all, subpopulations separated by glaciers evolved into distinct species.

  E. Graves’s study of fish populations separated by the Isthmus of Panama may well provide a picture of the beginning stages of speciation.

  C. Speciation does not need to take place through allopatry because subpopulations will form distinct species whenever there are adaptive advantages to not interbreeding with other subpopulations.

  F. Graves’s study of physically separated fish populations show that there must be large differences between the environments of the isolated populations if allopatric speciation is to take place.

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