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1. What is the lecture mainly about? 【题型】内容主旨题
A Reasons for the transition from religious to secular themes in Renaissance art
B The disproportionate influence of Italian artists during the Renaissance period
C Techniques used during the Renaissance to produce realistic works of art
D A comparison of themes in paintings and sculptures during the Renaissance
破题关键词汇：what, mainly about
解析：(从第27”开始，原文重现：And there are different ways that these natural themes were explored…But today I’d like to consider an influential Italian Renaissance artist… different approach. )
教授先说开发natural themes有different ways,之后就说要以Italian Renaissance时期的一位艺术家为例加以说明，再综合整个讲座，可知讲座的主题就是讨论在意大利文艺复兴时期所使用的制作艺术作品所使用的技巧。
2. What is the professor's opinion of Leon Battista Alberti as an artist? 【题型】态度题
A Alberti’s interests were too diverse for him to succeed in any one field
B Alberti was ineffective in imposing his own theories on other artists.
C Alberti was a much more skilled artist than da Vinci or Michelangelo.
D Alberti represents the Renaissance ideal of wide-ranging achievement.
破题关键词汇：Leon Battista Alberti
解析：(从第54”开始，原文重现： Leon Battisa Alberti was a painter… very wide-ranging interests, like Da Vinci or Michelangelo,….)
教授介绍Leon Battisa Alberti时说他有多个角色，同时说他wide-ranging intereste兴趣广泛，与达芬奇及米开朗琪罗等艺术家类似…因此教授认为Leon Battisa Alberti是有广泛成就的代表，故D选项正确。
3. According to the professor, what did Alberti consider to be the most important aspect of a Renaissance painting? 【题型】细节题
A That it convey an appealing narrative
B That its figures be posed symmetrically
C That its theme not be religious
D That its characters be positioned within a landscape
破题关键词汇：important, Renaissance painting
解析：(从第1’11“开始，原文重现：Alberti believed that the most important approach for a painter was to capture a story or narrative. )
4. Why did some artists begin to use the contrapposto pose? 【题型】细节题
A To create a cartoon-like effect
B To help viewers identify the main figure in a work of art
C To show the relative sizes of human figures
D To make human figures appear more natural
解析：(从第1‘51“重现：Well, Alberti needed characters, right?..And he wanted to represent them as realistically as possible,… One way he achieved this was to make use of what’s known as “the contrapposto pose”.)
题干问一些艺术家使用contrapposto pose的原因，在上面所示的部分one way之前给出了原因：to reprent them as realistically as possible, 故正确选项为D。选项D中的natural对应听力中的realistically.
5. Why does the professor discuss tendons and muscles? 【题型】功能题
A To emphasize that Alberti’s study of anatomy led to his interest in art
B To show the emphasis Alberti placed on using physically fit models
C To illustrate the difficulty of maintaining a contrapposto pose in real life
D To explain one of Alberti's methods for creating accurate proportions
破题关键词汇：tendons and muscles
解析：(从第3’04”重现：But Alberti had a solution. He encouraged artists to visualize… This would give the artist an idea of the …imaging attaching the tendons and muscles…)
教授指出messing up the proportions的后果会导致人物形象cartoon-like and unnatural之后说Alberti有解决方法，之后提到了tendons and muscles,所以答案为D。
6. Why was the development of linear one-point perspective important to Renaissance artists? 【题型】 细节题
A It helped painters to place figures more symmetrically within their paintings.
B It allowed painters to create an illusion of three dimensions.
C It enabled artists to paint large landscapes for the first time.
D It encouraged artists to take an interest in geometry.
破题关键词汇：linear one-point perspective
解析：(从第4‘09“重现： In particular, the type of …was called”Linera One-point Perspective”)
该句出现了关键词linear one-point perspective，往后听到8’35”By drawing figures and objects… This gives the illusion of a third dimension, and makes the work of art more realistic.出现了the illusion of a third dimension，所以B为正确选项。
1. What is the lecture mainly about? 【题型】内容主旨题
A The process by which immune cells are produced
B The effects of consuming far fewer calories than usual
C The function of an organ found in rhesus monkeys and in humans
D The discovery of a nutrient necessary for good health
解析：(从第18“开始，原文重现：So that’s the overview of human immune system….naive T-cells. Can you go over that part again? )
讲座一开始，教授就说明了讲座的主旨是已经讲过immune systems了，学生要求再讲一下naïve T-cells的情况。可见正确答案是A。
2. Why does the professor mention the thymus? 【题型】组织结构题
A To explain how different types of food are turned into energy
B To give an example of an organ attacked by certain bacteria
C To introduce a research study by a nutritional biologist
D To answer a question about certain immune cells
解析：(从第 18“开始，原文重现：Students: And also why do we call them that any way?... Professor: It’s a small organ in the body. Anyway, that’s why we call them that. They come from the thymus. And T-cells are a part of body’s immune system.)
3. According to the professor, why are some cells called "naive"?【题型】细节题
A They originate from a relatively primitive type of cell.
B They are easily eliminated by the immune system.
C They are not yet able to recognize any particular protein marker.
D They can become part of any one of various organs of the body.
解析：(从第47“开始，原文重现：But why naïve?...It’s learned to recognize a protein marker that identifies this particular kind of bacterium. But before it’s learned to recognize any particular protein from outside the body, we call it naïve. )
4. In a recent study mentioned by the professor, what are two differences between the monkeys that have been fed a normal diet and the ones that have not?(Click on 2 answers) 【题型】细节题
A The monkeys on a normal diet appear older.
B The monkeys on a normal diet get sick less often.
C The monkeys on a normal diet have fewer naive T cells.
D The monkeys on a normal diet tend to live longer.
破题关键词汇：monkey, normal diet
解析：(从第2‘57“开始，原文重现： the calorie restricted monkeys are much healthier and they just look and act younger thant the monkeys in the normal diet group.
3’55”So later on in life, there are fewer and fewer of these naïve T-cells left to deal with any new disease-causing organisms….)
5. What does the professor think about a calorie-restricted diet?(Click on 2 answers) 【题型】态度题
A She would not find it easy to follow.
B She is not sure humans would benefit from it
C Doctors are not likely ever to recommend it for people.
D It would probably affect humans differently than it affects monkeys.
破题关键词汇：a calorie-restricted diet
解析：(从第4‘24“开始，原文重现： And that’s why they live longer? Well, it’s got be one reason. This is all pretty complex though with lots of details yet to be worked out.
But are results the same for humans? …Hard to say. A good study would take decades. And it’s not easy…)
这里的complex与选项A的not easy 对应。
Hard to say与选项B的not sure对应。
6. What does the professor mean when she says this: 【题型】功能题(重听题)
A Problems in the study make its conclusions difficult to believe.
B The actual effect on mice was not what it seemed.
C Other studies of mice produced different results.
D Other animals seem to react as mice do.
P:And the result , the underfed mice lived much longer than the normally fed ones.
S: Wow!Does that just go for mice?
P: Apparently not. )
1. What does the professor mainly discuss? 【题型】内容主旨题
A Characteristics of different types of mixtures
B Differences between mixtures and solutions
C Ways of separating components of mixtures
D Identifying variable properties of solutions
解析：(从第18”开始，原文重现： Now, there are two main kinds of mixtures: homogeneous and heterogeneous. Maybe I should put this on the board.)
2. In the lecture, the professor gives examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. For each mixture below, indicate which kind it is. 【题型】细节题
Click in the correct boxes
破题关键词汇：homogeneous , heterogeneous
You can see the boundary between them and in fact…说明soil是heterogeneous的。
2‘30“But that’s not so for all of them, like smoke. Actually，... But if you magnify it, you can see that there are tiny solid and liquid particles suspended in the air. So actually what you got in smoke are three phases… 说明smoke是heterogeneous的。
3’01”Dirty water is water that has suspended solid matter in it …The boundaries are detectable. So multiple phases.说明dirty water是heterogeneous的。
3‘47“When salts dissolve in water no amount of magnification…There are no detectable boundaries between salt and water.说明salt是homogeneous的。
3. What is one basis for classifying a mixture as homogeneous or heterogeneous? 【题型】细节题
A Whether its component parts are the same type of matter
B Whether its component parts are present in equal proportions
C Whether it contains one phase or more than one phase
D Whether it appears, without magnification, to contain a single component
破题关键词汇：classifying a mixture
解析：(从第53”开始，原文重现： So a homogeneous mixture is the same throughout. It contains only phase. ….Now if homogeneous mixtures are ones.. Mixtures that are different throughout.)
4. What can be inferred from the lecture about the process of distillation? 【题型】推理题
A It cannot be used if a mixture has variable properties.
B It can be used to separate the components of homogeneous mixtures.
C It is used to change heterogeneous mixtures Into homogeneous mixtures.
D It is a more efficient way of separating components of heterogeneous mixtures than filtration.
解析：(从第3’58“开始，原文重现：Even so, what you can do with solutions is separate the parts by a process called distillation.)
5. Why does the professor mention the freezing point of a mixture? 【题型】组织结构题
A To explain why salt dissolves in water
B To emphasize that mixtures can exist in a frozen state
C To show how filtration and distillation differ
D To give an example of a variable property of mixtures
解析：(从第4‘23”开始，原文重现： Now, there are other ways,… uh, variable properties….A really simple example of this is…they vary of course, because of the relative amounts of the components, and the melting or freezing points of liquids too.)
教授提到variable property之后举了一个例子，例子提到了freezing point，故D选项正确。
6. What does the professor imply when he says this: 【题型】推理题
A He wants to correct a statement he made previously.
B He is uncertain whether the students understood his explanation.
C The meaning of a term should be obvious to the students.
D The students are probably unaware that they have already seen examples of heterogeneous mixtures.
解析：(从第1’31“开始，原文重现：then what do you suppose heterogeneous mixtures are? )
教授在讲解了homogeneous mixture的定义之后，说homogeneous mixtures are the ones that are the same throughout,然后说了上面的话，可见在教授看来，这个答案是很明显的，故C选项是正确选项。
1. What is the main purpose of the lecture? 【题型】目的主旨题
A To explore possible solutions to an anthropological mystery
B To analyze the results of a nutritional experiment
C To explain why human beings first started creating ceramics
D To examine changes in the dietary preferences of an ancient culture
解析：(从第26”开始，原文重现： So the question I want to look at today concerns the use of ceramic cooking vessels… why were they developed and used there?到了58”时， 教授又说 In fact, what’s been something of a mystery is why they were used at all, in the Arctic, I mean.)
2. According to the professor, why would the ceramic vessels used by ancient Arctic people be likely to break? 【题型】细节题
A Ancient Arctic people used cooking techniques unsuitable for ceramic pots.
B Ancient Arctic people were frequently moving from place to place.
C The vessels were not made with high-quality clay.
D The vessels were often exposed to extreme temperatures.
破题关键词汇：likely to break
解析：(从第1‘09“开始，原文重现： What would some of the drawbacks… Ancient Arctic societies were nomadic…So if people were moving around all the time, well, the pots would probably keep breaking…Ceramic cooking vessels can’t be transported easily.)
B选项的moving from place to place 对应原文的nomadic, 题干的关键词break对应如上所示的原文中的breaking。故B选项正确。
3. Why does the professor mention that the Arctic climate is cold and wet? 【题型】 组织结构题
A To explain why ancient Arctic people found warm food appealing
B To explain why ancient Arctic people required a diet that was rich in meat
C To explain the difficulties of manufacturing pottery in such a climate
D To explain why some foods could not be stored in clay pots
破题关键词汇：climate , cold and wet
解析：(从第1‘41“开始，原文重现：Warm, dry locations work best for this of course…So you can see the role that climate would play in whether or not ancient people created and used ceramic cooking… manufacturing pottery would have been a challenge, actually quite difficult for people in the Arctic.)
4. What does the professor imply about ancient Arctic people’s food preferences? 【题型】推理题
A They liked raw foods better than minimaIly cooked foods.
B They enjoyed eating foods that had been prepared in contrasting ways.
C Their preferences changed dramatically over time.
D They liked foods cooked in ceramic vessels better than foods cooked in other types of containers.
破题关键词汇：imply, food preference
解析：(从第3‘10“开始，原文重现：Although the diet…cooked food, …it was based on an interplay of contrasts, …)
5. According to the professor, why did ancient Arctic people cook using small fires?(Click on 2 answers) 【题型】细节题
A Their pottery could not withstand intense heat.
B Small fires made it easier to control cooking speed.
C Cooking had to be done indoors.
D Fuel was difficult to obtain.
解析：(从第3‘56“开始，原文重现： Well, first of all, wood for cooking fires was in short supply…food had to be prepared inside, indoors most of the year. Therefore, fires had to be small, and cooking methods had to be efficient.)
C选项的indoors对应上文的prepared inside, indoors. D选项的difficult to obtain对应上文的wood was in short supply. 故CD选项正确。
6. Why does the student say this: 【题型】功能题(重听题)
A He wants to make sure the professor is referring to the past and not the present.
B He does not understand why making ceramics in the Arctic is considered challenging.
C He thinks the fact that ancient Arctic people made ceramics requires some explanation.
D He does not believe the ancient Arctic people actually made ceramics.
解析：(从第2‘03“开始，原文重现： But you’re saying they did make ceramic cooking pots.)
学生用了转折词but和强调助动词did来说明教授说过Arctic people确实用过ceramic cooking pots. 他的目的就是让教授对所说的话给予一定的解释。故C选项正确。