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1. The word "remnants" in the passage is closest in meaning 【词汇题】
evidence证据。 results 结果。reminder提醒。
2. The word "domain" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
A field of expertise
解析：domain领域。对应A选项field of expertise， 专业领域。
3. According to paragraph 3, all of the following are true of the Beringian landscape EXCEPT. 【否定事实信息题】
A There was little vegetation.
B The mammal species there all survived into modern versions.
C The climate was drier than it is today.
D There were mountains with glaciers.
解析：B选项的all过于绝对，与原文的This land mass supported… and somewhat modern versions of caribou…中的somewhat的表述不符。
A选项对应原文的sparse vegetation. C选项对应原文的They need landscapes with strong winds that remove the winter snows, exposing the dry grasses beneath. D选项是原文glaciated mountains的同义替换。
4. The purpose of paragraph 3 is to 【修辞目的题】
A contrast today’s Beringian landscape with other landscapes in the American continent
B describe the Beringian landscape during the last ice age
C explain why so many Beringian species became extinct during the last ice age
D summarize the information about Beringia that historians agree on
解析：第3段主要就是描述last ice age期间的Beringian的景色，故B选项正确。A选项的contrast原文没有提到。C选项的explain的内容原文没有提到。D选项并没有对historians所同义的information进行summarize.
5. The word "continuous” in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
B very cold
解析：continuous 持续的。D选项的uninterrupted意为连续的、不间断的。符合continuous在原文的语境。unpredictable不可预知的，very cold 很寒冷的， dangerous危险的。
6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. 【句子简化题】
A According to biologist Dale Guthrie, mammal species require broad areas of vegetation to survive.
B Dale Guthrie is an Arctic biologist who argued that broad areas of dense vegetation were surely enough to attract mammals such as mammoth, horse, and bison to Beringia.
C Dale Guthrie argued that Beringia, though cold and dry, must have had enough dense vegetation to support the herds of mammoth, horse, and bison that lived there.
D As long as Beringia was cold and dry, argued Dale Guthrie, dense vegetation grew in order to support the herds of mammoth, horse, and bison—the mammal species present there.
解析：原句的逻辑while表示让步，句子核心：哺乳动物的存在让Dale认为即使cold and dry, 也一定有vegetation support 那些哺乳动物。C选项句子对应原句的两个核心，though的逻辑关系正确，因此C选项正确。
7. According to paragraph 4，Guthrie believes that the teeth of ice-age fauna support which of the following conclusions? 【事实信息题】
A Large mammals would not have been able to survive in the Beringian landscape.
B Grasslands were part of the Beringian landscape.
C Strong winds exposed dry grasses under the snow.
D Horses and bison did not have the ability to search for food through deep snow cover..
解析：此题根据关键词teeth, ice-age fauna定位到原文的nearly all of the ice-age fauna had teeth that indicate an adaptation to grasses and sedges. 此句中的indicate对应题干的support, B选项的grassland对应句中的an adaptation to grasses and sedges。故B选项正确。
8. According to paragraph 4，which of the following statements is true of the relationship between ice- age Benngian animals and their environment? 【事实信息题】
A When present in sufficient quantities, lichens and mosses provide enough nutrients to satisfy the needs of herds of large mammals.
B The anatomy of certain animals present in that environment provides information about the intensity of winds there at that time.
C The structure of the teeth of most ice-age fauna indicates that they preyed on animals such as the mammoth, horse, and bison.
D Horses and bison are large enough that their feet can easily penetrate deep snow and uncover areas where they can feed on plant material.
解析：A选项的表述与原文They could not have been supported by a modern flora of mosses and lichens的表述不符。B选项对应原文的Guthrie has…the landscape must have been subject to intense and continuous winds, …through deep snow cover. C 选项对应原文的…ice-age fauna had teeth that indicate…,但是选项中indicates的内容与原文不符。D选项的large enough… feet can easily penetrate的表述与原文 do not have the ability…的表述不符，错误。
9. In paragraph 5, the amount of pollen in Beringian lake sediments from the last ice age is used to explain 【修辞目的题】
A how long the ice age lasted
B how important pollen is as a source of food
C how many different kinds of plants produce pollen
D how little vegetation must have been present at that time
解析：根据原文第5段可知，Paul Colinvaux对pollen的含量做出分析的原因就是为了说明在last ice age时期，vegetation是非常少的。故D选项正确。
10. According to paragraph 5, how did Dale Guthrie use the information about radiocarbon analysis of bones from Benngian deposits? 【事实信息题】
A To suggest that Colinvaux should have used different methods to measure the amount of pollen in ice-age lake sediments
B To argue that the large Beringian mammals must have eaten plants that produce little, if any, pollen
C To show that the conclusions that Colinvaux drew from the analysis of pollen in ice-age lake sediments cannot be correct
D To explain why so-called polar deserts are incapable of supporting such large animals as mammoth, horse, and bison
解析： 根据原文，Dale Guthrie是反对Paul Colinvaux所得出的in no way was it possible that this region could have supported large herds of mammals结论的。因为Dale Guthrie从对一些动物的radiocarbon的分析中发现：mammoth, horse and bison bones是确实存在于intense glaciation时期的，也就是他认为Paul Colinvaux的结论是错误的，故C选项正确。
11. The word "plausible" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
preferable 更可取的，更合意的。 practical实际的。 advantageous有优势的。
12. Which of the following best describes the organization of paragraph 6 ? 【事实信息题】
A Two contrasting views are presented, and a study that could decide between them is proposed
B An argument is offered, and reasons both for and against the argument are presented
C A claim is made, and a study supporting the claim is described
D New information is presented, and the information is used to show that two competing explanations can each be seen as correct in some way.
解析：第6段先明确说recent studies resulted in new findings. 然后又说the first… as was predicted by Guthrie. 即说明此发现是与Guthrie的观点吻合。之后又说But…., a finding supporting some of the arguments of Colinvaux.也就是说此发现也说明Colinvaux的部分观点也是对的。因此D选项正确。
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. 【句子插入题】
Nevertheless, large animals managed to survive in Beringia.
Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. 【概要小结题】
Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.
To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT
During the last ice age, human hunters pursued large mammals across Beringia, a land whose climatic characteristics have been in dispute.
Strong evidence indicates that large mammals like mammoth and bison survived in the harsh ice-age Beringian landscape.
Carnivores such as the saber-tooth cat were primarily responsible for the disappearance of the largest of the grazing animals, but the harsh winters caused some grazers to die of starvation.
The discovery that grasses, sedges, and mosses survived under the thick ash from a large volcanic eruption proved that the ice-age Benngian plant cover was extremely resistant to climatic extremes.
Benngian mammals crossed easily from northeastern Asia to Alaska across the Bering Land Bridge, though there are indications that they usually went back to Asia for the brief, but warm, summers.
Analyses of ice-age sediments uncovered very small amounts of pollen, suggesting that Benngia lacked the quantity of vegetation needed to support large herds of mammals.
Recent discoveries suggest that shallow-rooted plants created a fairly continuous cover over ice-age Beringia, though the cover most likely was variable and uncertain in any one location.
解析：A选项对应原文的Guthrie has argued… pointing out that….,故为正确选项。
B选项说saber-tooth cat 对grazing animals的disapperance负责，这点与原文的These grazers supported… a saber-tooth cat…的表述不符。
C选项的was extremely resistant to的说法错误。
D选项的usually went back to Asia的说法无中生有。
E选项对应原文He found that the amount of…故为正确选项。
F选项对应原文Investigations of the plants found…故为正确选项。