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在托福写作中,你是不是也犯了这些错?

2016-02-29 14:29

  托福写作要求我们在30分钟内用电脑敲打出不少于300字的作文,这是对考生语言能力的一个考验。在有限的时间内,既要考虑表达的逻辑思路又要兼顾遣词造 句的准确性,虽然评分标准中没有明确说明语法上的扣分点,但过多的语法错误必定会影响得分。今天这一课,就是为考生们整理了在托福写作中常犯的语法错误, 孩子们有则改之无则加勉哦。

  一、主谓一致

  1. 数上的一致

  a) In addition, the academic knowledge itself are moving into a new field……

  b) When one have money, he can do what he want to.

  c) Joe, together with his friend are going to the beach.

  注意:当主语和谓语被其他成分隔开时,一定要先找到主语再确定谓语的单复数。例如:

  a) Limping, the horse once considered one of the favorites was taken away.

  b) When the auditions left, the executive who had been interviewed was glad.

  c) Near the lake, the houses on the road is gorgeous.

  d) The problems that are created by environmental contamination are very hard to resolve.

  2. 不定代词做主语时的几种情况

  a)Some, any, none, more, most 做主语

  Some of the money are here.

  Most places in my country is beautiful.

  ※ 这五个词要看其后所跟的名词的单复数而定

  b) no one 做主语

  On one of my friends are here.

  ※ no one 后面无论跟什么词,谓语都是单数

  c)every, each 修饰名词时

  Every dog and cat have paws

  Each of these boys are from Sichuan.

  ※ each, every 后面不管是单数还是复数谓语都用单数

  注意:

  a)在这些句型中,either…or neither… nor , not only … but also 谓语动词遵循就进原则

  b)当and 连接两个或两个以上的主语是谓语动词用单数,但用 along with, in addition to, as well as, together with, including 表并列时,谓语动词的形式视前面的主语而定。

  Math, in addition to history and science is a required subject.

  c)当动名词短语,句子做主语是谓语用单数

  Speaking with your mouth full is impolite.

  二、时态语态

  1. 时态错误

  a) Today, cultures around the world were becoming increasingly similar.

  b) It is a good opportunity to teach children how to manage their own money when they were young

  c) Allen Iverson, for instance, though he is one of the greatest NBA stars in the history and made a lot of money

  注意:除非是在列举过去发生的例子时,议论文中很少使用过去时

  2.语态错误

  a) The new guideline has made contribution to the rise in the number of archeologists that archaeology jobs are not longer just be found at universities or government agencies.

  b) Children who are raise in impoverished(贫穷的) families can generally deal with problems more effectively in their adult years.

  c) Hence, this cosmopolitan and cohesive world is provides us a great deal of approaches to learn new stuff.

  d) Many students are like studying home economics

  注意:一个句子中不能出现两个谓语动词,即be动词和实义动词不能连用,除非表被动语态,或者前面是情态动词,被动语态的动词一定别忘了加-ed或者-d

  d) The problems that are created by environmental contamination are very hard to resolve.

  3. 不定代词做主语时的几种情况

  a)Some, any, none, more, most 做主语

  Some of the money are here.

  Most places in my country is beautiful.

  ※ 这五个词要看其后所跟的名词的单复数而定

  b)no one 做主语

  On one of my friends are here.

  ※ no one 后面无论跟什么词,谓语都是单数

  c)every, each 修饰名词时

  Every dog and cat have paws

  Each of these boys are from Sichuan.

  ※ each, every 后面不管是单数还是复数谓语都用单数

  注意:

  a)在这些句型中,either…or neither… nor , not only … but also 谓语动词遵循就进原则

  b)当and 连接两个或两个以上的主语是谓语动词用单数,但用 along with, in addition to, as well as, together with, including 表并列时,谓语动词的形式视前面的主语而定。

  Math, in addition to history and science is a required subject.

  c)当动名词短语,句子做主语是谓语用单数

  Speaking with your mouth full is impolite.

  三、指代不清

  1. 指代与被指代不清楚

  Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid。

  改为:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.)

  注意:当句子中代词较多时,我们可以把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,这样意思就一目了然了。

  2.先后所指不一致

  a) And we can also know the society by serving it yourself。

  b) Admittedly, our friends are often at similar age, since people are under same value system and usually have the same culture background. Therefore, those people would share their thought easily.

  c) But I certainly prefer the second type of friends who can help you right in time.

  d) Friends can also bring us fun and meanwhile help us when we needed it.

  注意:当代词距离它所指代的名词比较远时,比较容易出错,后面的代词一定要和前面的保持一致。

  四、词性错误

  1.副词使用错误

  a) Intelligent students should not be treated different by their teachers.

  b) The industrialization which started in my father's age definite changed our environment significantly

  2.形容词使用错误

  a) We can never talk about the issues that vital to our academic study or career development.

  b) The society is becoming more and more advance and cohesive

  注意:形容词不能单独做谓语,一般和be动词连用构成系表结构

  3. 介词使用错误

  a) The internet has instead of teachers in many classrooms.

  b) People today have to worry about finding a job after graduate.

  注意:介词不能当动词用,介词后跟名词或动名词

  4.名词使用错误

  a) If he doesn't have the chance to go to college, he will become a farmer just like his family.

  b) Employee can get more benefits from telecommuting(远程上班) than employer

  c) Car runs faster than people. Nowadays more and more people go to work by car.

  d) We need friends to share our thought and to talk about feelings.

  注意:

  ① 可数名词永远不能单独使用,或者和冠词一起使用,或者用复数形式

  ② 有的名词单数和复数表示的意思是不一样的,像 thought &thoughts, custom&customs, drink & drinks 等,在写作时要注意。

  ③ 名词在使用时要注意集体名词的使用

  五、固定搭配错误

  1.固定搭配中的介词使用错误

  a) Countries should pay attention on the disadvantages globalization may create.

  b) Our society and government are now regarding education to an important step to become wealthy.

  2.固定句型中动词的使用错误

  a) Because the world is becoming more and more cohesive than ever, which require the students perfect their skills on academic or other aspects.

  b) All of these make people to care about the environment and handle the social pressure

  c) If a student only spends time on studied, he will later have difficulty communicate with others.

  3. 其他类型的搭配错误

  I can travel to another side of the earth by the air nowadays

  六、句子不完整

  a) There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on.

  b) Although we do create more wealth and material than that in my grandfather's age.

  c) Despite life today is becoming more convenient and people could easily find entertainment. There are more limits on our daily life.

  d) The electron named in 1894.

  注意:过去分词不能充当谓语成分,如果句子以连词或从句开头则要注意句子的完整性

  七、表达累赘或中式表达

  1. 表达累赘

  a) In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

  简化为:In spite of his laziness, I like him.

  b) For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need。

  简化为:Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need

  c) The people who around my grandfather' age, are living a relatively relax life during their middle age

  简化为:People in my grandfather’s age are…

  注意:言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。

  2.中式表达

  a) In fact, it’s becoming more and more complex and put people under high pressure than ever.

  改为:…people are under more social pressure than ever.

  b) In conclusion, most times, our friends are between those two types of person stated above. One can make you forget about pressure while the other can take you out of trouble

  改为:Those that can have fun with can make you forget about pressure while those that can help you can take you out of trouble.


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